Volume 7, 2020
Special Issue - The emerging materials and processing technologies
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Published online||28 February 2020|
Electrodes criticality: the impact of CRMs in the leachate electrochemical oxidation
Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicz St, Gdańsk 80-980, Poland
2 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicz St, Gdańsk 80-980, Poland
3 Department of Materials, Environmental Sciences and Urban Planning, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, Ancona, 60131, Italy
* e-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 22 January 2020
Landfill leachate possesses high concentrations of ammonia, micropollutants, and heavy metals, and are characterised for low biodegradability. For this reason, conventional treatment technologies may result ineffective for complete pollutant removal. Electrochemical oxidation allows most of the of recalcitrant pollutants to be oxidised effectively within an easy operational and acceptable retention time, without the need to provide additional chemicals, and without producing waste materials. The mineralisation efficiency and electrode durability depend on the nature of the electrode material. The conventionally adopted anodes can contain critical raw materials (CRMs), and are subject to extreme corrosion conditions. CRM-free electrodes, such as carbon and graphite-based, exhibit a lower efficiency, and are subject to faster deactivation, or, as for lead-dioxide-based electrodes, can constitute a hazard due to the release into the effluent of the coating corrosion products. In this study, the relationship between electrode type, CRM content, and the removal efficiencies of organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen (N-NH4) was investigated. Material criticality was estimated by the supply risk with economic importance indexes reported in the 2017 EU CRM List. The COD and N-NH4 removal efficiencies were obtained from a literature analysis of 25 publications. The results show that, while single and multi-oxide-coated electrodes may contain low amounts of CRM, but with limited efficiency, boron-doped diamonds (BDD) may constitute the best compromise in terms of a reduced content of CRM and a high mineralisation efficiency.
Key words: Recalcitrant pollutants / anodic oxidation / mineralisation efficiency / critical raw materials / boron-doped diamonds / advanced oxidation process
© M. Pierpaoli et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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