Open Access

Table 1.

The initial parameters of numerical simulation.

Condition Value
Material of billet Copper
Material of tool and die AISI-H13
Diameter of billet (mm) Φ20
Initial temperature of billet (°C) 20
Initial temperature of tool and die (°C) 450
Rotation velocity of extrusion wheel (rpm) 6, 9, 12
Friction factor of billet and extrusion wheel 0.95
Friction factor of billet and guide roller 0.05
Friction factor of billet and chamber and die 0.3
Friction factor of billet and roller 0.35
Conductivity of billet (N/s K) 30
Heat capacity of billet (N m2/K) 0.3

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