Open Access

Table 1

Comparison of some ceramic powders synthesis routes.

Synthesis route Solid state process Co-precipitation Hydro-thermal Sol–gel Spray pyrolysis
Composition control Poor Good Excellent Medium Excellent
Morphology control Poor Medium Good Medium Good
Particle size (nm) >1000 >100 10–100 >10 >10
Hard agglomerates Medium High Low Medium Low
Impurities (%) 0.5–1 Max. 0.5 Max. 0.5 0.1–0.5 0.1–0.5
Additional steps Calcination, milling Calcination, milling No Calcination, milling No
Scalability Industrial Industrial Demonstration Demonstration R&D
Environmental impact High Moderate Low High Moderate

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