Table 3

Studies in which a material-based electrode investigation was performed for the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachates.

Reference COD removal efficiency N-NH4 removal efficiency Note
Chiang et al. [10] Ti/Sn-Pd-Ru > Ti/Ru-Ti > Ti/PbO2 > graphite correlation between the COD removal efficiency and chlorine/hypochlorite production
removal of ammonium was mainly due to the indirect oxidation effect of chlorine/hypochlorite

Cossu et al. [11] Ti/PbO2 ≈ Ti/SnO2 substantial differences did not arise when the anodic material was Ti/PbO2 or Ti/SnO2

Panizza et al. [12] BDD > Ti/PbO2 > Ti/Ti-Ru-Sn with the PbO2 anode, ammonium and colour were completely removed after 8 h; formation of intermediates
complete COD, colour and ammonium removal with BDD

Fernandes et al. [13,14] BDD ≈ Ti/Pt/PbO2 ≈ Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4 Ti/Pt/PbO2 > BDD > Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4 ammonium to nitrate conversion was higher in BDD than other metal oxides
COD and N-NH4 removal rates increased with chloride ion concentration,

Fudala-Ksiazek [7] BDD 10k ≈ BDD 5k ≈ BDD 0.5k BDD 10k ≈ BDD 0.5k > BDD 5k a decrease in the sp3/sp2 ratio of the applied BDD material resulted in the elevated removal efficiency of N-NH4

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