Table 2

Direct Energy Deposition techniques.

Method Benefits Fe-based alloys Other metals Application
Direct Laser deposition [29,30] Build up on any freeform substrate
Multi-material process
Stainless steels, H13 tool steel, Inconel 625, Ti alloy, Cr, W, magnets Rapidly prototyping of metallic parts, complex and customized parts, clad/repair precious metallic components and manufacture/repair in remote or logistically weak locations.
Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS®) [29,31]
Gas metal Arc Welding (GMAW) / Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) [32] High build speed
Cost efficient
Stainless Steel Ti and Al alloys Medium and large aerospace components
Direct Electron Beam Manufacturing (DEBM) [33,34] Fastest build process;
Large metal structures can be produced;
Reduced wastes
Stainless Steel, 4340 Steel Ti-, Ta-, W-, Cu-, Al-, Nb-, and Ni-based alloys Aerospace, medical, nuclear components, marine systems, tooling repair

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