Direct Energy Deposition techniques.
|Method||Benefits||Fe-based alloys||Other metals||Application|
|Direct Laser deposition [29,30]||Build up on any freeform substrate
|Stainless steels, H13 tool steel,||Inconel 625, Ti alloy, Cr, W, magnets||Rapidly prototyping of metallic parts, complex and customized parts, clad/repair precious metallic components and manufacture/repair in remote or logistically weak locations.|
|Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS®) [29,31]|
|Gas metal Arc Welding (GMAW) / Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) ||High build speed
|Stainless Steel||Ti and Al alloys||Medium and large aerospace components|
|Direct Electron Beam Manufacturing (DEBM) [33,34]||Fastest build process;
Large metal structures can be produced;
|Stainless Steel, 4340 Steel||Ti-, Ta-, W-, Cu-, Al-, Nb-, and Ni-based alloys||Aerospace, medical, nuclear components, marine systems, tooling repair|
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