Table 4

Comparison of energy efficiency and deposition rate of DED processes.

DED process Energy efficiency Deposition rate References
WAAM − GMAW − GTAM Up to 90% 50–130 g/min [5357]
Direct Laser Deposition, LENS 2–5% 2–10 g/min [5355,58]
Direct Electron Beam Manufacturing (DEBM) / Direct Electron Beam Welding (DEBW) 15–20% 2–10 g/min [5355,59]

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