|References||Workpiece materials||Electrode materials||Dielectric medium||Process parameters||Machining characteristics||Techniques||Research findings|
|||Al–SiC metal matrix composite||Brass||Kerosene||Discharge current, pulse duration, speed of electrode rotation, hole diameter of the electrode, polarity of the electrode, volume percentage of SiC||Material removal rate, electrode wear rate, surface roughness||GA||• With the increase in volume percentage of SiC, MRR decreases and EWR increases.
• With the decrease in hole diameter and increase in speed of the rotating tube electrode, MRR increases and EWR and SR decreases.
|||WC/30%Co composite||Copper||Kerosene||Electrode rotation, pulse on time, current, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, surface roughness||RSM||• Combination of low pulse time and high peak current, rotational speed, and flushing pressure yields more MRR and less Ra.
• Surface finish improves at higher levels of electrode rotation and flushing pressure
|Copper||EDM oil||Pulse-on time, peak current, gap voltage, spindle speed, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, surface roughness||Taguchi method||• Peak current has the most significant effect on MRR, whereas the pulse-on time and gap voltage show almost the same effect, over MRR
• Surface roughness is affected by peak current and pulse-on time while gap voltage and spindle speed have no effect.
|||AISI D3 tool steel||Copper||Kerosene||Pulse current,
pulse-on time, pulse-off time, gap voltage
|Overcut||RSM||• Overcut is significantly affected by pulse-on time and pulse current but pulse-off time and gap voltage have less effect.|
|||Inconel 718||Brass||Discharge current, open-circuit voltage, pulse-on time, duty factor, flushing pressure, cryogenic treatment soaking duration of brass tool||Electrode wear ratio, surface roughness, radial overcut||TOPSIS, TLBO||• Deep cryogenic treated brass tool with longer soaking duration has been proven to be an ideal EDM tool to machine hard materials like Inconel 718.|
|||Inconel 718||Copper, graphite, brass||Paraffin oil||Open circuit voltage, discharge current, pulse-on-time, duty factor, flushing pressure, electrode material||Material removal rate, tool wear rate, surface roughness, radial overcut||PSO||• Material removal rate can be maximized with the use of graphite tool and minimized using brass electrode but better surface integrity can be obtained using brass electrode.
• Tool wear decreases using graphite tool compared to copper and brass tool.
• QPSO provides better result than PSO resulting.
|||Tungsten carbide||Copper, tungsten||EDM 22 mineral oil||Electrode material, polarity, open-circuit voltage, peak current, pulse duration, pulse interval, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, relative wear ratio, surface roughness||• Material removal rate and the surface roughness are directly proportional to the peak current.|
|||Titanium Grade 6 alloy (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn)||Copper, brass, zinc||Pulse on time, peak current, gap voltage. Duty cycle||Material removal rate, tool wear rate||RSM||• Material removal rate can be maximized with the use of brass and zinc electrodes compared to copper electrode.
• Tool wear and recast layer can be reduced with the use of brass and zinc electrodes.
|Tungsten, copper, cryogenically treated copper||EDM 30 oil||Peak discharge current, pulse-on time, gap
voltage, duty factor, dielectric flushing pressure, spark
gap, machining time
|Material removal efficiency, surface roughness, surface crack density, white layer thickness||• Cryogenically treated Copper has exhibited higher micro-hardness value, higher MRR, improved surface finish and lower tool wear as compared to normal Copper.
• Lower MRR and too rough surface has obtained by using tungsten electrode.
|||Al6061-SiC MMC||Copper, brass, stainless steel||Kerosene oil mixed with grapheme nanoparticle||Current intensity, pulse duration, duty cycle||Material removal rate, surface roughness, electrode wear ratio||RSM||• Brass electrode yielded higher MRR and better surface finish than copper and stainless steel electrodes.
• Lower EWR resulted by using stainless steel electrode than copper and brass electrodes.
|||Inconel 825||Graphite, tungsten, brass, copper||EDM 30 oil||Peak discharge current, gap voltage, pulse-on time, duty factor, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, surface roughness, surface crack density, white layer thickness||• Copper electrode yielded higher MRR.
• Increase in peak discharge current, increases the material removal rate, surface roughness, white layer thickness etc.
|Cu-TaC composite||Urea solution, distilled water||Peak current, pulse duration||Surface roughness, microhardness||• Distilled water dielectric fluid gave better surface roughness, while use of urea solution gives higher surface roughness.|
|||AISI 8407 steel||Steel needle||Oxygen, air, kerosene, deionized water, water-in-oil emulsion||Pulse duration, type of dielectrics||Hole geometry, craters, recast layer thickness, material removal rate||• Different shape of craters formed in different dielectrics with the same experimental conditions
• Higher removal has been obtained in liquid dielectrics compared to gaseous dielectrics
• Kerosene resulted in higher removal efficiency; less volume of material was melted compared to other dielectrics.
|||Aluminium alloy 6063||Copper||Biodiesel, transformer oil, kerosene||Peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time, different dielectrics||Material removal rate, electrode
Wear, surface roughness
|Taguchi method||• biodiesel gives high MRR and less EWR compared to kerosene dielectric
• The material removal rate and electrode wear rate are mainly affected by peak current followed by the pulse on time with negligible effect of pulse off time.
|||Inconel 738||Brass||Kerosene, deionized, water, EDM emulsion, water solution EDM fluid||Open circuit voltage, current peak, pulse duration, pulse interval||Material removal rate, electrode wear, holes generation, recast layer formation||Taguchi method||• The recast layer became thicker with the increase in electric conductivity of dielectric fluids.
• The recast layer became thin with kerosene but due to decomposition of kerosene, the machining speed was low.
|||Spheroidal graphite cast iron||Copper||Kerosene||Diameter of graphite particle, quantity of graphite particle, area fraction of graphite particle||Layer thickness, Ridge density||RSM||• Layer thickness increases with the increase of the quantity and area fraction of graphite particle but it reduces with the increase of diameter of graphite particle.|
|||Al/SiC metal matrix composite||Copper||Kerosene||Pulse on time, peak current, average gap voltage, volume fraction of SiC in aluminium matrix||Material removal rate, electrode wear ratio, gap size, surface finish||RSM||• MRR becomes higher with an increase of pulse on time, peak current and relatively with gap voltage and reduces with increase of SiC percentage.
• EWR becomes higher with an increase of both pulse on time and peak current and reduces with increase of both of SiC percentage and gap voltage.
• Surface roughness increases with the increase of pulse on time, SiC percentage, peak current, gap voltage.
|||AISI D2 tool steel||Graphite||Kerosene mixed with carbon nanotube||Discharge current, discharge duration, discharge voltage||Surface roughness, morphology, micro-cracks||RSM, fuzzy logic modelling||• Micro-cracks with CNT are less than that without CNTs.
• The maximum test errors for surface roughness and micro-cracks using response surface model are more without CNTs compared to with CNTs.
|||Al-Mg2Si metal matrix composite||Copper||Dielectric fluid mixed with aluminium powder||Voltage, current, pulse on time, duty factor||Material removal rate, electrode wear ratio, microstructure changes||RSM||• MRR is significantly affected by voltage, current and EWR is significantly affected by pulses ON time.
• It was obtained from the microstructure analysis that voltage, current, and pulse ON time have a significant effect on machined surface profile.
|||AISI D6 tool steel||Copper||Kerosene||Pulse on time, pulse current, voltage||Material removal rate, tool wear ratio||RSM||• Increased pulse on time resulted in higher material removal rate and reduced tool wear ratio.
• Both material removal rate and tool wear ratio become maximum by increasing the pulse current and reduces at higher value of the input voltage respectively.
|||Titanium Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy||Graphite||Kerosene||Current, voltage, pulse on time, pulse off time||Material removal rate, electrode wear rate, surface roughness||RSM||• The absolute error between predictions and actual values fall within 10% for which the model can be effectively used to predict the EDM machining parameters.|
|||AISI D2 steel||Copper||EDM oil||Pulse current, pulse on time, duty cycle||Surface roughness||ANN||• The process performance with accuracy could be predicted using neural models under different machining conditions.
• RBFN is faster than the BPNs and the BPN is reasonably more accurate.
|||Al/SiC MMC||Copper, graphite, copper–graphite composite||EDM oil, EDM oil + copper powder, EDM oil + graphite powder||Workpiece, electrode, current, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, dielectric fluid||Residual stress||ANN||• MMCs with low coefficient of thermal expansion and a high density of reinforced particle have lower residual stresses.
• The residual stresses reduced by adding powder in the dielectric.
|||Titanium alloy||Copper, copper-chromium, copper-tungsten||Ferrolac 3M EDM oil||Peak current, pulse-on-time, pulse-off-time, dielectric fluid mixed with powder, electrode material,
cryogenic of electrode material, workpiece material, cryogenic workpiece material
|Surface roughness||Hybrid Taguchi-ANN approach||• High discharge energy resulted as surface defects such as cracks, craters, thick recast layer, micro pores, pin holes, residual stresses and debris.|
|||Polycrystalline diamond||Copper-tungsten, copper-nickel||Kerosene||Peak current, pulse interval, pulse duration||Material removal rate, electrode wear rate||ANN||• Copper tungsten electrode gave lower EWR, in comparison with the copper nickel electrode.|
|||Inconel 718||Tungsten carbide||Kerosene||Peak current, pulse on-time, pulse off-time, spark gap||Electrode wear, material removal rate, working gap||Grey-Taguchi method||• Grey-Taguchi method is very suitable for solving the quality problem of machining in the micro milling EDM of Inconel 718|
|||Maraging steel (MDN 300)||Copper||Discharge current, pulse on time, pulse off time||Material removal rate, tool wear rate, relative wear ratio, surface roughness||Taguchi method||• Discharge current is more significant than pulse on time for MRR and TWR.
• Higher discharge current and longer pulse on duration gives rougher surface with more craters, globules of debris, and microcracks.
|||S-03 special stainless steel||Copper||Kerosene||Gap voltage, peak discharge current, pulse width, pulse interval||Material removal rate, surface roughness||Taguchi method, grey relational analysis||• The EDM high-accuracy process parameters sequenced in order of: peak discharge current, pulse interval, gap voltage, and pulse width.
• The machined work piece has no surface modification layer.
|||NiTi alloys||Copper||Gap current, pulse on time, pulse off time, workpiece electrical conductivity, tool conductivity||Material removal rate||Taguchi method||• The material removal rate affected by the significant the material removal rate parameters like work electrical conductivity, gap current and pulse on time.|
|||SS 304||WC||Kerosene||Voltage, capacitance, resistance, feed rate, spindle speed||Electrode wear, entrance clearance, exit clearance, machining time, number of shorts||Taguchi method, grey relational analysis||• Electrode wear and the entrance and exit clearances have a significant effect on the diameter of the micro-hole when the diameter of the electrode is identical.|
|||6061Al/Al2O3p/20P aluminium MMC||Copper||Pulse current, pulse ON time, duty cycle, gap voltage, tool electrode lift time||Material removal rate, tool wear rate, surface roughness||Grey relational analysis||• The sequence of the process parameters to the multi-performance characteristics is in the order of: pulse current, aspect ratio, tool electrode lift time, pulse ON time, gap voltage and duty cycle.
• Grey system theory is designed to work with system where the available information is not sufficient to characterise the system.
|||Nickel-based superalloy||Copper||Gap voltage, gap current, pulse on time, duty factor, polarity, tool & workpiece materials, type of dielectrics, flow rate, flushing pressure, rotation of electrode or workpiece||Material removal rate, surface roughness, circularity||Taguchi method, RSM, PCA-GRA||• MRR become improves with the use of present hybrid approach in this experimental study.|
|||Al7075||Brass||Deionized water||Pulse on-time, pulse off-time, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, tool wear rate||Grey relational analysis||• The optimization results showed that the MRR become maximum due to combination of higher pulse on-time and reduced pulse off-time.
• Tool wear rate was highly affected by pulse on-time, pulse off-time.
|||Si3N4-TiN composites||Copper||Current, pulse on time, pulse off time, dielectric pressure, gap voltage||MRR, electrode wear rate, surface roughness, radial overcut, taper angle, circularity, cylindricity, perpendicularity||GRA-RSM||• MRR increases with increase in discharge current and pulse on time.
• EWR increases with increase in discharge current and pulse on time, and decrease in gap voltage.
• The surface roughness decreases with decrease in discharge current whereas increasing gap voltage reduces surface roughness.
|||JIS SKD 61 alloy tool steel||Copper||Discharge current, gap voltage, pulse on-time, pulse off-time||Material removal rate, relative electrode wear ratio, surface finish||RSM, GA||• MRR increases due to a more powerful spark energy, at higher discharge current and pulse on time.
• Larger thickness of recast layer was formed on the machined surface due to the powerful spark energy.
• Relative electrode wear ratio reduces with increase of pulse on-time.
|||Al–SiC nano-composites||Copper||Voltage, pulse current, pulse on time, pulse off time||Material removal rate, electrode wear rate, surface roughness||RSM||• MRR increases with an increase in pulse on time and then with further increase in pulse on time.
• MRR and surface roughness is mainly affected by pulse current and pulse on time.
|||Aluminium-multiwall carbon Nano- tube composites
|Copper||Kerosene||Machining-on time, discharge current, voltage, total depth of cut||Material removal rate, wear electrode ratio, surface roughness||Taguchi method, RSM||• As the number of trials increases over wider domains of process variables, the accuracy of these models is enhanced.
• This methodology gathers experimental results, builds mathematical models in the domain of interest and optimizes the process models.
|||Tool steel 55NiCrMoV7||Graphite (EDM-3 POCO)||EDM fluid 108 MP-SE 60||Material removal rate||RSM||• Increase in the discharge current and pulse time leads to generation of craters with a larger depth and diameter.
• Inter pulse time did not affect the change in surface integrity and the MRR significantly.
|||A2 tool steel||Copper||EDM-30||Discharge current, pulse on time, duty cycle, discharge voltage||Material removal rate, Electrode wear rate||Principal component analysis||• Discharge current is directly proportional to both MRR and EWR
• Discharge current is having the maximum contribution towards MRR, while pulse on time is having maximum contribution towards EWR
|||Beryllium–copper alloy||C-122 copper||EDM-244 oil, deionized water||Dielectric medium, pulse on/off time, working current||material removal rate, electrode wear ratio, surface roughness||Taguchi method, GRA, RSM||• MRR is mostly affected by the working current, while the dielectric medium is the dominant parameter for EWR and Ra.|
|||AISI 202 steel||Tungsten carbide||Kerosene||Discharge current, gap voltage, duty factor||Material removal rate, surface roughness||Taguchi method||• Better surface finish with high MRR could be produced by the modified ISO current pulse generator.|
|||Inconel 600||Graphite||Mineral oil||Current intensity, pulse time, duty cycle, open-circuit voltage, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, electrode wear, surface roughness||RSM||• Positive polarity results in higher MRR.
• Both the production costs and production time decreases with an increase in current intensity.
|||Inconel 601, 625, 718, 825 super alloys||Graphite||EDM oil||Gap voltage, peak discharge current, pulse-on time, duty factor, flushing pressure||Material removal rate, electrode wear rate; surface roughness, surface crack density||Satisfaction function approach integrated with Taguchi method||• MRR and surface roughness increases with peak current.|
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