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Table 2

Schematic illustration of computational costs by the four numerical modellings.

Cases of analysis Particle element type Particle element quantity Substrate element type Substrate element quantity CPU Time (s) Computational cost per element per increment
Lagrangian C3D8RT 33800 C3D8RT 1123412 283973 4.10
SPH PC3D 15200 C3D8R 572432 125028 4.70
ALE C3D8RT 4630 C3D8RT 80000 9319.6 9.08
CEL C3D8RT 33800 C3D8RT 1123412 330975 6.52

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