Schematic calculation plan used in the MD simulation.
|Materials||Nanoparticle||spherical Pd cluster (diameter 1, 2, 3 and 4 nm), 43–2,310 atoms|
|Substrate||rectangular Cu (15 nm × 15 nm × 4.0 nm) approx. 77,326 atoms|
|Operating conditions||Duration of simulation||20 picoseconds|
|Time-step||1 fs (0.001 ps)|
|Particle diameter||1–4 nm|
|Impact velocity||500–1500 m/s|
|Angle of impact||900|
|Initial Stand-off distance||1.5 nm|
|Boundary condition||p p s|
|Potential used||Embedded-atom-method (EAM) [37,38]|
|Initial temperature||300–1000 K|
|Substrate crystal orientation||   for x, y and z-axis|
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