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Table 1

Schematic calculation plan used in the MD simulation.

Materials Nanoparticle spherical Pd cluster (diameter 1, 2, 3 and 4 nm), 43–2,310 atoms
  Substrate rectangular Cu (15 nm × 15 nm × 4.0 nm) approx. 77,326 atoms
Operating conditions Duration of simulation 20 picoseconds
  Time-step 1 fs (0.001 ps)
  Particle diameter 1–4 nm
  Impact velocity 500–1500 m/s
  Angle of impact 900
  Initial Stand-off distance 1.5 nm
  Boundary condition p p s
  Potential used Embedded-atom-method (EAM) [37,38]
  Initial temperature 300–1000 K
  Substrate crystal orientation [100] [010] [001] for x, y and z-axis

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