Open Access

Table 1

Summary of relevant data extracted from the selected articles.

Substrate material Type of nanoparticles (diameter in nm) Type of study Type of cell/organism Type of
Type of biocompatibility
Was antibacterial effect tested for? References
Titanium Silver nanoparticles
(AgNPs) (∼58)
In vitro Dental
pulp stem cells (DPSCs)
Alamar Blue
assay® and SEM
Cell viability 14 days yes [17]
Ti13Zr13Nb AgNPs (∼50) In vitro MC3T3-E1 MTS assay Cell proliferation 3 and 7 days yes [18]
Nickel–titanium (NiTi) AgNPs (∼230) In vitro Human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) CCK-8 assay Cytotoxicity 1, 2, and 3 days yes [19]
Ti6Al4V and
Ti6Al4V/TNT5 alloys
AgNPs (18–115) In vitro Murine fibroblast cell line L929, Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells MTT assay
Cell adhesion and proliferation 24, 72 and 120 hr yes [11]
Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) Silica-gentamycin (∼298) In vitro Human skin fibroblasts CCK-8 assay
Cell adhesion and proliferation
2 hr
24 hr
yes [20]
Ti AgNPs (10–30) In vitro Human osteoblast-like cells MG63 MTT assay Osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation Cytotoxicity 24, 48, 120 hr, and 7 days yes [21]
Medically pure Ti AgNPs (10–40) In vitro Rat bone
marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs)
cell viability assay
PicoGreen dsDNA assay kit
Cell viability
Normalized alkaline
phosphatase activity
Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantity
1, 4, and 7 days
3 days
yes [22]
cp-Ti TiO2 (100–360) In vitro Simulated body fluid (SBF)
Human foetal osteoblastic cell lines
Biominerilisation studies
MTT assay
SEM analysis
Apatite-forming ability
Cell adhesion and proliferation, cytotoxicity
Cell adhesion
and proliferation
21 days
1 and 3 days
∼5 days
yes [23]
cp-Ti AgNPs (∼10) In vitro MC3T3-E1 WST-1
ALP test
Filamentous actin (F-actin) staining
Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity
Morphology of cells on substrate
ALP activity
Cytoskeleton organization of cells grown
1, 3, 5, and 7 days
10 days
1 hr
yes [24]
Ti AgNPs (∼100) In vitro Human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) MTT assay FL
Cell viability
Cell morphology and cytoskeletal architecture
Cell attachment and proliferation
1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days
24 hr
3 and 12 hr
yes [25]
cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V alloy AgNPs (20– 200) In vitro Human osteosarcoma cells (MG63) MTT assay Cells viability 4 hr yes [26]
TiAI6V4 alloy AgNPs (25) In vitro MC3T3-E1 FL Cells viability 2 and 4 days yes [27]
cp-Ti AgNPs (<100) In vitro human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) MTT assay
SEM analysis
Matrix formation analysis
qRT-PCR analysis
Cells viability: metabolic activity of cells
Morphology of cells on substrate
Cells attachment, spreading, and morphology
Collagenous and noncollagenous contents of extracellular matrix
Levels of osteogenic genes on substrate
1, 3, and 6 days
2 and 4 days
3 h, 1 and 6 days
10 and 17 days
14 days
no [28]
cp-Ti TiO2 (20) In vitro L929 murine fibroblasts SEM Cell attachment and growth 48 hr no [29]
Ti AgNPs (∼5) In vitro MC3T3-E1 CLSM
ALP test
Cell proliferation, cytotoxicity
Cell morphology
Osteoblastic differentiation
1, 3 and 5 days
5 days
7, 14 and 21 days
yes [30]
cp-Ti AgNPs (100–150) In vitro Human gingival fibroblasts HGF-1, human osteoblast U-2 OS FL
MTT assay
Cell cycle evaluation
Cell growth on substrate
Cell proliferative activity
96 hr
72 and 96 hr
72 and 96 hr
no [31]
Ti AgNPs (∼30) In vitro MC3T3-E1 FL and FE-SEM
CCK-8 assay
Cell adhesion and morphology
1 day
1 − 4 hr
yes [32]
cp-Ti AgNPs In vitro Human foetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) MTT assay
Cell proliferation
early cell adhesion
4 and 7 days
∼24 hr
no [33]
cp-Ti AgNPs In vitro Rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) SEM analysis
Alamar Blue assay
Cells attachment and spreading
Proliferation rate
1, 3 or 7 days
3 and 7 days
yes [34]
Ti AgNPs (20–30) In vitro
In vivo
Cell counting kit-8
ALP test
Alizarin red staining
Radiographic evaluation
Histological evaluation
Cell differentiation
Degree of mineralization
New bone formation
3, 5, and 7 days
7 and 14 days
15 and 21 days
8 weeks
yes [35]
cp-Ti AgNPs (20–50) In vitro MC3T3-E1 FL MTT assay
ALP assay
Cell attachment and proliferation Cell differentiation 12 h, 24 h and 5 days
4, 7 and 10 days
yes [36]

AgNPs = silver nanoparticles; ALP= alkaline phosphatase; CCK-8 = Cell Counting Kit-8; CLSM = confocal laser scanning microscopy; cp-Ti = commercial pure titanium; DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; FL = fluorescence microscopy; MC3T3-E1= mouse osteoblast precursor cell line; MTS = (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium); MTT= 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide; PCR = polymerase chain reaction; rBMSCs = rat bone marrow stem cells; SEM = scanning electron microscope; TiO2 = titanium dioxide; WST-1 = 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4- disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt.

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