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Table 3

Developmental timelines of representative categories of laser metal AM technologies [95].

Laser based techniques 1980 s–2000 s 2000 s–2020 s
Laser directed energy deposition (LDED) Laser cladding of coatings
Laser categories:
CO2 laser, 10 kW (1986)
Nd:YAG laser, 500 W (1995)
Diode laser, 940 nm, 1.4 kW (1998)
Laser and printing parameters:
Typical beam size, 0.6 − 4 mm
Energy intensity, ∼104
Building rate, 0.1–4.1 cm3/min
Laser additive manufacturing
Laser categories:
Diode laser, 10 kW (2015)
Disk laser, 10 kW (2015)
Fiber laser, 12 kW (2015)
Nd:YAG laser, 4 kW (2016)
Laser and printing parameters:
Typical beam size, 3–6 mm
Energy intensity, ∼105 W/cm2
Building rate, 11.5 cm3/min
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) Laser sintering
Laser categories:
CO2 laser, 100 W (1993)
Nd:YAG laser, 100 W (1997)
Beam quality factor (CO2 laser): 3-5 mm.mrad
Typical beam size, 0.3–0.5 mm
Energy intensity,104–105 W/cm2
Building rate, ∼0.2 cm3/min
Laser melting
Laser categories:
Disk laser, 1 kW (2011)
Fiber laser, 200 W (2012)
Green laser, 515 nm, 1 kW (2020)
Beam quality factor (Fiber laser): 0.3–4 mm.mrad
Typical beam size, 70–200 μm
Energy intensity, 106–107 W/cm2
Building rate, ∼1.3 cm3/min

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