Open Access

Table 4

Comparison of the benefits of conventional and AM techniques [4,97].

Conventional manufacturing AM or 3D manufacturing
Cost: Extremely expensive for miniaturized samples due to various steps involved such as moulds, dye, tooling, and other post-processing techniques that results in final finishing. Many of the products can be fabricated at low-cost especially for small sized materials.
Waste: Material wastage is extremely high as most of the techniques do not result in near-net shape. For instance, in casting, gating systems and risers must be machined from the actual component. There is limited waste of materials as the process is additive and final component is fabricated to near-net shape, thus less machining is required.
Prototyping: This is not really designed for rapid prototyping hence very time consuming and expensive. It is not an ideal process for concept designs and prototypes. This is prototypically oriented and excellent concept for evaluating concepts design and iterative processes to arrive at components with optimized properties.
Product complexities: This is difficult to manufacturing complex geometries and product with intricate parts specially for casting where complex patterns will generate blowholes, which is very detrimental to overall structural integrity. This is very ideal for complicated and complex geometries. Once the shape and its intricacies can be conceived, it can surely be fabricated especially by being able to design the digital twin.
Post manufacturing treatment: This requires some form of processing after fabrication. This could be machining to the desired shape or cold and hot working to induce respective properties. This is dependent on the technique and the material being used as some do not require any post-fabrication processing.
Structural integrity: Components from these techniques are for load bearing applications due to the high densification associated with them post fabrication. This is dependent on the material and the techniques being use. They are widely used for functional and some structural applications. With the current evolution and rapid advancements, there is great strides in excellent structural integrity.
Resource consumption: This is extremely high and extremely costly. Being an additive procedure, the material usage is optimized to fabricate components.

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