Open Access

Table 7

Advances of 3D printing in the medical industry.

Area of application Detailed description and milestone References
Human organs (heart, liver, kidney, and its tissues) Near net shapes and sizes of various human organs ranging from hearts, livers, kidneys and its related tissues, ventricles, chambers, and cells have been printed.
3D printing gain momentum for reconstructive medicine and regenerative surgery as well as therapy
Human skin and cell printing Printed skin grafts for burn victims and cancer patients. Some of these printed skins have been implemented successfully on patients with no adverse side effects.
Various human cells and tissues have also been printed and successfully implemented. These cells have the regenerative properties of a typical human tissue and cells, which is due to the materials used for the process.
Vascular tubing Hollow vascular tubes are fabricated to the required sizes and shapes for cells and biological matrices and scaffolds. One of the best methods for complex and intricate human vascular tissues. [2733]
Bones and its related tissues 3D printing of various soft and hard bones of the human body has been successful. [3440]
Spine surgery 3D printing is gaining traction in spinal surgery, from anatomical models to surgical tools (screw guides and customized inserts and implants). [59]
Orthopedic Applications AM has been successfully applied for surgical instruments anatomic models, tools, prosthesis, and orthopedic implants (spinal devices and knees). [113118]

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