Open Access

Table 3

Final dataset with 32 articles.

No Articles Title Theoretical study Empirical study Case study types

CNC machine Robotic arm Lab equipment
1. Stock and Seliger [15] Opportunities of Sustainable Manufacturing in Industry 4.0    
2. Lins, Guerreiro [5] A novel methodology for retrofitting CNC machines based on the context of industry 4.0      
3. Arjoni, Madani [8] Manufacture Equipment Retrofit to Allow Usage in the Industry 4.0  
4. Ferreira, Albano [82] A pilot for proactive maintenance in industry 4.0      
5. Lins and Oliveira [47] Cyber-physical production systems retrofitting in context of industry 4.0    
6. Contreras Pérez, Cano Buitrón [6] Methodology for the retrofitting of manufacturing resources for migration of SME towards Industry 4.0    
7. Langmann and Rojas-Pena [83] A PLC as an Industry 4.0 component      
8. Vachalek, Bartalsky [84] The digital twin of an industrial production line within the industry 4.0 concept    
9. Al-Maeeni, Kuhnhen [43] Smart retrofitting of machine tools in the context of industry 4.0    
10. Pueo, Santolaria [76] Design methodology for production systems retrofit in SMEs    
11. Zambetti, Khan [57] Enabling servitisation by retrofitting legacy equipment for Industry 4.0 applications: benefits and barriers for OEMs    
12. Guerreiro, Lins [13] Definition of Smart Retrofitting: First Steps for a Company to Deploy Aspects of Industry 4.0    
13. Di Carlo, Mazzuto [42] Retrofitting a Process Plant in an Industry 4.0 Perspective for Improving Safety and Maintenance Performance      
14. Niemeyer, Gehrke [85] Getting Small Medium Enterprises started on Industry 4.0 using retrofitting solutions      
15. Lima, Massote [86] IoT Energy Retrofit and the Connection of Legacy Machines Inside the Industry 4.0 Concept    
16. Lins, Augusto Rabelo Oliveira [87] Industry 4.0 Retrofitting    
17. Etz, Brantner [41] Smart Manufacturing Retrofit for Brownfield Systems    
18. García, Cano [12] Digital retrofit: A first step toward the adoption of Industry 4.0 to the manufacturing systems of small and medium-sized enterprises      
19. Herwan, Kano [40] Retrofitting old CNC turning with an accelerometer at a remote location towards Industry 4.0    
20. Tzou, Fan [55] Embedded smart box for legacy machines to approach to I4.0 in smart manufacturing      
21. Garcia-Garza, Ahuett-Garza [88] A Case about the Upgrade of Manufacturing Equipment for Insertion into an Industry 4.0 Environment  
22. Jónasdóttir, Dhanani [89] Upgrading Legacy Equipment to Industry 4.0 Through a Cyber-Physical Interface    
23. Kancharla, Bekaert [90] Augmented Reality Based Machine Monitoring for Legacy Machines: a retrofitting use case      
24. Tantscher and Mayer [18] Digital Retrofitting of legacy machines: A holistic procedure model for industrial companies      
25. Schulz [91] FDI and the Industrial Internet of Things      
26. Kostolani, Murín [92] An effective industrial control approach    
27. Haskamp, Orth [49] Implementing an OPC UA interface for legacy PLC based automation systems using the Azure cloud: An ICPS-architecture with a retrofitted RFID system    
28. Rupprecht, Trunzer [93] Concepts for Retrofitting Industrial Programmable Logic Controllers for Industry 4.0 Scenarios    
29. Ferreira, Arif [94] Retrofitting, open-sourcing, and characterisation of a legacy fused deposition modelling system    
30. Biesinger, Meike [95] A digital twin for production planning based on cyber-physical systems: A Case Study for a Cyber-Physical System  
31. Xing, Liu [96] Low-Cost Precision Monitoring System of Machine Tools for SMEs    
32. Zhong, Wang [97] An IoT-enabled Real-time Machine Status Monitoring Approach for Cloud Manufacturing    

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