Open Access

Table 1.

Summary of the main features of joining by forming and by welding.

Joining by forming Joining by welding
Mechanism Plastic deformation Melting with addition of filler materials
Shape of the connections Arbitrary geometries Limited to butt, lap, corner and edge joints
Operating temperature Ambient Melting point
Heat-affected zones No Yes
Shielding gases No Yes
Materials Metals and polymers Metals (similar)
Coated materials Possible Very difficult or impossible
Energy consumption Less More
Productivity More Less
Cost Less More
Environmental friendliness More Less

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