Open Access

Table 12

Classification of the of the modelling studies on the UC AM process.

Reference number KPI Process parameter (Variable)
[167] Linear weld density Oscillation amplitude, welding speed, normal force, substrate temperature
[168] Solid state diffusion and bonding, microstructural deformation mechanisms Surface effects (friction work, temperature)
[169] Linear weld density Energy input to the workpiece within a single cycle of ultrasonic vibration, total energy input to the workpiece
[170] Yield stress Thermal, acoustic softening
[171] Amplitude of contact friction stress and displacement Vibration condition, substrate height
[172] Dislocations and bonding fragmentation  
[173] Friction behaviour at the interfaces Velocity of sonotrode, displacement amplitude of ultrasonic vibration, applied loads
[174] Residual stress and distortion Support structure
[175] Weld strength Contact pressure, amplitude, welding time
[176] Ultimate shear strength, ultimate transverse tensile strength Tack force, weld force, oscillation amplitude, weld rate

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