Open Access

Table 4

Classification of the of the modelling studies on the SLS AM process.

Reference number KPI Process parameter (Variable)
[28] Thermal deformations, heat transfer phenomena  
[29] Surface accuracy, build-time, orientation efficiency  
[30] Length of the sintered piece, shrinkage depth, temperature Line energy, laser path
[31] Residual stresses Exposure strategy of the laser beam
[32] Thermal modelling residual stresses, distortions  
[33] Heat affected zone dimensions Laser power, scanning speed, laser spot diameter
[34] Thermal modelling, absorption, sintering zone dimensions Scan speed, laser power
[35] Shrinkage Laser power, beam speed, hatch spacing, part bed temperature and scan length
[36] Focal length, porosity of the powder bed Shell thickness
[37] Mechanical properties of the part Laser power, laser, beam velocity, hatch spacing, laser beam spot size, scan line length, delay period, number of effective, exposures
[38] Compressive effective stiffness, mechanical properties in general Porosity, hydroxyapatite loading, filler loading
[39] Modelling of the first stage of liquid phase sintering process, solidification Capillary forces
[40] Fusion depth, temperature profile, degradation, crystallization type Scan speed, laser power, powder types
[41] System temperature, microstructure  
[42] Mechanical properties, part density Laser power, scan spacing, scan speed, layer thickness, powder bed's temperature
[44,45] Build time Height, volume, bounding
[46] Thermal modelling, sintering depth, energy consumption Scan spacing beam diameter, wide range of other parameters
[47] Laser energy consumption Part geometry, slice thickness, part orientation
[48] Melting track profile, thermal modelling of particles
[43] Microstructure, mechanical properties Laser power, laser scan speed and laser scan spacing
[49] Thermal modelling
[50] Part temperature history Layer position in the part under construction
[28,51] Thermal modelling, dimensional accuracy
[52] Thermal modelling
[53] Temperature of powder bed Laser power, laser speed, preheating temperature, laser beam diameter
[54] Thermal history Laser power, beam diameter, laser on-time, laser off-time, hatch spacing

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