Open Access

Table 7

Classification of the of the modelling studies on the DED AM process.

Reference number KPI Process/Part parameter (Variable)
[1719] Etching, deposition, lithography mechanics Surface type, material, shape
[32] Residual stresses, distortions  
[41] System temperature  
[49] Heat transfer related  
[50] Part temperature history Layer position in the part under construction
[78] Surface finish Melt-pool geometries, layer thickness, powder/laser interaction distance
[79] Surface finish, melt pool, dilution ratio Laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate
[82,83] Clad width, depth and height Process speed, powder feed rate
[81] Track and microstructure
Scanner speed, stand-off distance, diameter ratio of the clad to powder stream for Gaussian mode distribution
[84] Layer/melt pool dimensions Laser power, powder mass flux
[85] Shapes of manufactured structures, thermal loads  
[86] Local temperature history, track profile, microstructure scale  
[87] Spreading, cooling and solidification processes of droplets Substrate velocity
[88] Thickness of the deposition layer, the depth of the molten pool, the penetration of the substrate or previous deposited layer Scanning speed, powder feeding rate, input electric current
[89] Residual stresses, distortion High speed machining post-process
[90] Thermal modelling, residual stresses, thermal distortions Temperature history
[91] Temperature, stress field Deposition pattern
[92] Stresses, strains Heat input, layer thickness
[95] Bead geometry (layer thickness, dimensional precision) Welding speed, wire feed rate, arc voltage
[96] Microstructure, mechanical properties Pre-heating of substrate, scanning speed, idle time
[93] Residual stresses Melt pool geometry, metal powder flow rate, laser power, scanning speed, scanning direction, and deposition layer thickness
[97] Microstructure, hardness, residual stresses Deposition parameters
[94] Residual stress history, microstructure Phase change
[98] Total spread of droplet, solidification front speed, interlamellar spacing Droplet size, speed, superheat
[99] Microstructure, hardness Substrate size, idle time
[100] Powder-to-solid transition Temperature, porosity-dependent conduction
[101] Grain size, grain growth speed, Temperature, deposition over time
[115] Thermal history Laser-scan velocities
[102] Spreading and shape of the droplet after impact Substrate roughness and temperature, speed of droplet
[103] Splashing of droplets Impact velocity, temperature
[104] Fingering and splashing of the droplet Droplet velocity, liquid type, temperature of surface, surface roughness, contact angle
[105] Desired shape after impact Initial droplet shape
[106] Microstructure, temperature field Number of layers, layer height, wire feed rate, travel speed, heat input
[107] Droplet spreading, final deposit shapes times needed for initialization and completion of freezing Initial droplet temperature, impact velocity, thermal contact resistance and initial substrate temperature
[108] Fluid dynamics, Heat transfer related and phase-change of droplet  
[109] Droplet generating frequency Disturbance frequency
[110] Solder bump characteristics, shape Solder solidification
[111] Spreading and evaporation Droplet material
[112] Droplet deformation and solidification, Heat transfer related in the substrate, maximum spread diameter  
[113] Maximum spread factor, solidification parameter Impact velocity and substrate temperature
[114] Laser attenuation and powder temperatures  
[116] Heat transfer related, phase changes, and fluid flow in the molten pool  
[117] Thermal modelling, calibration of input parameters utilizing IR imaging  
[118] Thermal history, residual stresses Induction heating patterns

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.