Open Access

Table 1

MMC fabrication categories [11].

Composite type/Process Examples (Reinforcement/Matrix) Main features
Solid state processing
In-situ forming − internal oxidation Al2O3/SiO2 BeO particulate in Cu or Ag Modest strength strength improvement
Good electrical conductivity
Powder forming
Sintered aluminum powder Al2O3 particulate/Al matrix Moderate strength and stiffness around 300 °C
Long or short fibers or particulate incorporated by powder metallurgy   Low density
Good stiffness/strength to modest particulate incorporated temperatures
Low density
Low thermal expansion
Mechanical alloying Oxide particles in super alloy matrix High performance alloy
High strength at high temperatures
Diffusion bonding    
Long fibers in intermetallic SiC fibers in Ti3Al etc. Some problems over oxidation at high temperatures
Liquid state processing
Molten metal mix processing SiC or Al2O3/Light alloy matrices Modest improvements in properties
Infiltration of performs SiC whiskers,Al2O3 fibers/Al alloys C/Al and Mg alloys SiC/Ti alloys B/Al alloys Good stiffness and strength to 200 °C
Low density
Low thermal conductivity
Dispersion Semi solidus processing Various ceramic dispersoids into the melt Si in Al Some problems in controlling the microstructure
Modest strength
Good wear characteristics
Spraying Particulate/short or long fibers in alloy matrices, for example, Sic or Al2O/in Al alloys Good stiffness and strength
Low density
Low thermal expansion coefficient
In situ processing TiB2 particulate/Al alloy Good strength ductility and toughness
Fatigue resistant
Other techniques
Molecular level mixing Carbon nano tubes (CNTs) reinforced copper(Cu) matrix nano composites No clustering of molecules
Uniform dispersion
CIP + HIP TiCp particulate/Al alloy Formation of oxidation constraint of high temperature use
Sputtering method Titanium aluminide alloy, Ti–Al–Nb, on short length Sic fibers Microstructure modification
Clean environment with excellent impurity control
Good repeatability/reproducibility
Homogeneity of the deposited matrix

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