Summary of applications and methods for thin-film deposition processes .
|Criterion for deposition process||Deposition processes|
|E-beam evaporation||RF Sputtering||Cathodic arc||PECVD||APS/SPPS|
|Mechanism of production of depositiong species||Thermal energy||Momentum transfer||Thermal energy||Chemical reaction||Flames or plasma|
|Deposition rate||Can be very high (up to 750 000 Å/min)||Low||Can be very high||Moderate (200–2500 Å/min)||Very high|
|Deposition species||Atoms & ions||Atoms & ions||Ions||Atoms||Droplets|
|Uniformity for complex shaped objects||Poor, line of sight coverage except by gas scattering||Good, nonuniform, uniform thickness distributions||Good, but nonuniform thickness distribution||Good||No|
|Energy of deposited species||Low (∼0.1–0.5 eV)||Can be high (1–100 eV)||Very high||Can be high||Very high|
|Bombardment of substrate/deposit by inert gas ions||Generally no||Yes or no, depending on geometry||Yes||Possible||Yes|
|Substrate heating (by external means)||Yes, normally||Yes or no||Yes or no||Yes||Not normally|
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