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Rolling paths designed by target-temperature driven intelligent simulation under different initial ring temperatures when vD 0 = 20 mm/s: (a), (c) and (e) are ring growth velocity, feed rate of mandrel and feed rate of upper axial roll with time, respectively. (b), (d) and (f) are ring growth velocity, feed rate of mandrel and feed rate of upper axial roll with ring outer diameter, respectively.
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