Open Access

Table 1

FE simulation parameters.

Parameters Value
Ring outer diameter, inner diameter and height (mm) 900.0, 790.0, 120.0
Blank outer diameter, inner diameter and height (mm) 500.3, 304.4, 141.5
Radii of main roll, mandrel and guide rolls (mm) 550.0, 130.0, 100.0
Conical angle of axial rolls (°) 35
Temperature of rolls (°C) 300
Temperature of ambient (°C) 25
Rotational speed of main roll (rad/s) 2.1
Friction coefficient 0.3
Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/(K m2)) 17.2
Thermal emissivity (W/(m2 K4)) 0.7
Interfacial heat transfer coefficient (W/(K m2)) 4000

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