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Table 6

Fusion welding process with parameters.

Mg alloy Process parameters and Its effects on the Mechanical Properties Mechanical properties References
Electron beam welding
AZ31B Acceleration voltage U: 150 kV; Focus current If: 2188 mA; Beam current IB: 30 mA; Welding speed v: 35 mm s−1
Joint type: Butt joint
Fatigue crack propagation test [109]
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
AZ31B Current: 160–165 A; Length of the Arc: 1.7 mm; Welding speed: 100 mm min−1; Flow rate of Ar shield gas: 10 ؏/min
Diameter of tungsten electrode: 3.2 mm
Effects: P/M processing time has a major influences on the tensile strengths of the joints, at 440 ppm or less, the tensile strengths of the weld joints are strong and defect free.
Hardness measurement
Tensile properties
AZ31B Type of Electrode: AC, W–2%ThO2; Electrode Diameter: 2.4 mm; Electrode Vertex angle: 90 °; Flow rate of shielding gas: 10 min−1 L of Ar; Length of the Arc: 1 mm; Welding current: 100 A; Welding speed: 600 mm min−1
Effects: at this optimum process parameters of 600 mm min−1 and welding current of 100 A, the tensile strengths and the microhardness were satisfactorily maintained.
Tensile properties
Microhardness properties
AZ61 Shielding gas: Ar; Current: 80 Å; Gas flow rate: 10 L min−1 Wire feed rate: 6 mm s−1; Welding speed: 2 mm s−1; Arc length: 5 mm; Residual stress: 45 MPa
Effects: A relatively low residual stress of 45 MPa coupled with high temperature of 500 °C lowers the joint's tensile strength, thereby making such combined process parameters undesirable.
Tensile properties [126]
AZ31B Shielding gas: Ar; Flow rate : 20 L/min; Pulse frequency: 4 Hz; Pulse on time: 50%; Welding speeds: 105−145 mm/min; Ratio of base current : 2.2 A
Effects: Relative to the other joints, joints produced at a welding speed of 135 mm/min exhibited higher strength characteristics, this is because the fusion zone produces fine grains and uniformly distributed precipitates.
Tensile properties
Microhardness properties
AZ31 Welding speed: 20 cm min−1; Welding current: 100 A and 45 A; Weld groove angles θ: 0°, 20°, 40° and 60° Maximum power output: 2 kW, Frequency: 15 kHz
Effects: The tensile strengths were improved due to a significant reduction in the sizes of the grain at the welding zone with the optimal process parameters of 2 kW power output and 15 kHz frequency.
Tensile properties
Microhardness properties
LA141 (Mg-Li-Al) Welding current: 60 A; Welding speed: 2.8-3.2 mmin−1; Gas flow: 10L/min; Tungsten electrode; Diameter: 2 mm
Effects: The joints performed consistently and quite well, notably in particular, tensile strength and microhardness, when the process parameters of welding current (60A) and welding speed range of 2.8-3.2 mmin−1 were utilized.
Tensile properties
Microhardness properties
AZ31 Mg Welding voltage: 80 A; Welding speed: 60 mmin−1; Electrode distance: 2 mm; Flow rate of argon gas: 7.5l/min
Effects: The process parameters indicated that a large heat input is undesirable since it has a negative impact on the mechanical characteristics of welded joints. However, at the optimum parameters listed above, excellent mechanical properties are achievable.
Tensile properties
Microhardness properties
MB3/AZ31 dissimilar alloy Welding speed :0.2 mmin−1; Voltage of the arc: 17 V; Shielding gas flow rate: 9 L min−1; Tungsten electrode diameter : 2.5 mm; Ultrasonic power: 1.0 kW; Welding current : 70 and110 A
Effects: At the optimum process parameters states, the welding defects were eliminated, resulting in increased tensile strength and enhanced microhardness.
Tensile properties
Microhardness properties
Laser welding
ZE41A Focal length: 150 mm; Fibre diameter: 0.6 mm; Top surface shielding gas: He; Bottom surface shielding gas: Ar; The flow rates were 18.9 and 21.2 l min−1; Shielding gad tilting angle: 30°; gap size of the workpieces: 0 to 0.6 mm; Defocusing range: 0 and −4 mm; Focal spot diameter: 0.45 mm; Delivering angle of 60°; Power value: 5 and 4 kW; Welding speed from 2 to 7 mmin−1
Effects: Weld depth and fusion area reduced as welding speed rose, according to the process conditions. In the case of partly penetrated welding, as welding speed rises, the level of penetration declines.
Fresnel absorption coefficient
Plasma Absorption
AZ31 Laser power: 2 kW; Welding speeds: 50 mms−1 100 mms−1
Effects: An increased welding speed led to an improved tensile strength coupled with a lower strain-hardening capacity due to its effect on the refinement of the grain sizes.
Tensile properties
Mg-rare earth
Welding speed: 3-5 mms−1; Sideblown gas: He; Shielding gas(back): Ar; Spectral data 0.025-nm resolution; Wavelength range: 200 −1100 nm; Welding direction: vertical; Frequency: 1000 s−1
Effects: As welding speed increases, plasma temperature falls initially, then rises.
Influence of plasma temperature [132]
AZ31 Laser power:2.75 kW; Welding speed: 33 m min−1; Distance: 0.5-2.0 mm; Frequency: 50-200 Hz
Effects: With an increase in the oscillation radius or a drop in the frequency, the breadth of the lap interface rises. At a distance of 2.0 mm and a frequencyrate of 25 Hz, it reaches 5.75 mm, which is 170 % higher than the weld without beam oscillation.
Tensile properties [107]
AZ31B Welding speed: 2 m min−1 maximum power of the laser source :6 kW; Beam quality: 6.9 mm/mrad; Wavelength: 1070 nm; spot diameter: 0.35 mm; Focal lengths: 150 mm and 350 mm; Top Shield Gas: Ar with flow rate of 20 L/min; Root Shield Gas: Ar with flow rate of 8 L/min
Effects: Low frequency, in combination with the optimal parameters of 2 kW laser power, 2 m/min welding speed, and 0.35 mm beam oscillating diameter, resulted in increased tensile strength and elongation ratio.
Tensile properties and Plastic deformation mechanism [92]
AZ31B Current: 25 A; Voltage: 30 V; Distance off: 1.3 mm; Electrode diameter: 1.6 mm; Speed: 30 mms−1
Effects: The optimum parameters above led to a defect free welded joints thereby enhancing The tensile-shear properties.
Tensile-shear properties [133]
AZ31B Beam power: 1400 W; Focus optics focal range: 192 mm; Placement of the focal point: 0 mm; Beam focal point diameter: 0.2 mm; Welding speed: 1.0 m min−1; Anterior protecting gas flow rate: 15 Lmin−1; Posterior protecting gas flow rate: 5 Lmin−1
Effects: As a result of carefully selected process parameters, The porosity of the weld drops considerably to less than 1%, also, grain refinement also increased which ultimately enhanced the mechanical properties considered.
Tensile Properties [134]
AZ31 and AZ61 Focus diameter: 0.25 mm; Focal length: − 1 mm; Laser power: 1.0 kW; Scanning velocity: 6 m/min; Upper Shielding gas: He at 10–20 Lmin−1; Lower Shielding gas: Ar at 5–15 Lmin−1 Tensile Properties
Hardness properties
AZ61 Laser power: 1.0 kW; Wavelength: 1.064 mm; Focal length: 120 mm; Focus diameter: 0.5 mm; Laser beam power: 350W; Pulse frequency: 35 Hz; Defocus distance: 1.0 mm; Flow rate: 10 L min−1 Ar shielding gas. Tensile shear properties [136]
AZ31 Laser powers: 1.2 − 2.0 kW; Welding speed: 60 mms−1; Shielding gas: Ar with the Flow rate of 15 Lmin−1; Focused laser beam: 400 µm, Focal length: 200 mm.
Effects: With a 1.5 kW welding power, The welded magnesium alloy joints' average microhardness rose to 67.1 HV0.1. During testing, the highest shear force was recorded as a received magnesium alloy welded joint (used laser power of 2.0 kW).
Maximum shear force
Microhardness properties
MgAl3Zn1 (AZ31)
AlMg3 (AA5754)
Laser power: 2.0 kW; Welding speed: 1.75 m min−1; Feed rate: 2.5 m min−1; Diameter 1.6 mm
Effects: Excellent joints were achieved at 1.75 m min1 welding speeds.
Tensile shear properties [138]
AZ61 Spot diameter : 0.2 mm; Beam power: 1kW; Welding speed 1800 mm min−1 to 2800 mm min−1, Beam Focus point:1 mm; Flux of shielding argon10 Lmin−1
Effects: The yield strength, UTS and deformation length of the welded joint were improved once the welding speed was raised from 1800 mm min1 to 2800 m/min. Furthermore, when welding speed rose significantly, the intermediate hardness value in the fusion zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increased.
Tensile properties
Mechanical properties
AZ31B Protective gas: argon Flow rate :12 L min−1; Focal lens: 150 mm; Spot size: 0.3 mm; Wavelength: 1.064 mm; Pulse duration: 3.2ms; Repetition rate: 40 Hz; Pulse energy: 7.5–12.5 J; Average power P: 0.3–0.5 kW; Focal position: 20.5 mm; Welding speed: 400–800 mm/min
Effects: Due to trapped oxides in the weld metal when flux was employed, the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joint with activating flux was substantially lower than that of the welded junction without flux.
Tensile properties [28]
AZ31B and AZ61A Laser power: 16 kW; Optical fibre diameter: 200 mm; Focal length: 250 mm; Shielding gas: Ar at 30 Lmin−1
Effects: As a result of grain hardening in the fusion zone, lower values of mechanical characteristics were attained with increased power input, humping was seen at a welding speed of 15 m min−1. Sound welded connections may be obtained by stabilizing the keyhole with an improved integration of process variables.
Tensile properties [89]
AZ31 Wavelength: 1.064 µm; maximum peak power: 10 kW; Pulse duration: 15 ms; Pulse frequency: 30 Hz; Focus radius: 0.25 mm; The peak power (P): 0.2 to 3  kW; Pulse time: 2-14 ms
Effects: With increasing peak power intensity and pulse duration, keyhole welding penetration and aspect ratio rise considerably, whereas the diameter of it mainly rises with pulse time also, the weld diameter is mostly affected by the pulse time in conduction welding, whereas welding penetration is largely unaffected.
Tensile properties [139]
AZ31 Power: 0.8-2.0 kW; Pulse time: 4ms; Diameter: 17-1175 µm; Penetration: 178-1074 µm; Aspect ratio: 0.194-0.91
Effects: It was observed that the first crack development orientation is connected to the alteration of the solidification parameters. The solidification fracture is reduced at 10 ms−0.3P pulse time.
Tensile properties [140]
Metal Inert Gas Welding
AZ91D Welding current: 170 A; Welding voltage: 24 V; Welding speeds: 300 mm min−1 and 450 mm min−1
Effects: Low welding speed (300 mm min−1) is undesirable since it resulted in higher heat input, and increased heat input results in degraded tensile characteristics of magnesium alloy welded joints.
Microstructures and cracking characteristics of the welded joints [63]
AZ31B Diameter: 1.6 mm; Shielding gas: Ar 15 L/min; Work distance: 15 mm; Welding voltage: 26.5 V; Wire feeding rate: 110-120 mm · s−1; Travel Speed: 6.7- 10 mms−1
Effects: Pores at the joints may be regulated with the right welding process parameters. For illustration, by combining the appropriate travel speed with the wire feeding speed, the number of pores in the weld may be regulated, and the absence or reduction of pores leads to better tensile and microhardness characteristics.
Tensile properties
AZ31 & AZ61 Welding speed: 0.6-1.0 m/min; Wire feed rate: 6 to 8 m/min.
Shielding gas: Ar 16 L/min feed rate
Effects: The energy input was carefully regulated to ensure that the weld joints' mechanical properties are of excellent quality.
Tensile properties
Fatigue strength
AZ31B Welding speed: 800 mm min−1; Wire feed rate: 7.0 m min−1;
Current (Rework) :170 A; Current (Pulse) :300A; Frequency(Pulse): 65 Hz; Voltage (Pulse) : 24.9 V; Voltage (rework) : 24.7 V; Pulse duration: 3.0 ms; Flow rate: 15 L min−1
Effects: the optimum parameters above led to a defect free welded joints thereby enhancing the tensile properties.
Tensile properties
Micro hardness
AZ31B Current(base): 50 A; Current (Rework): 140–170 A; Current (Pulse): 290–310 A; Wire feeding rate: 6.5–8.0 m min−1; Welding speed: 700–1200 mm min−1; Frequency (pulse): 65–75 Hz; Shiled gas flow: 13–16 L min−1
Effects: The optimum parameters above led to a defect free welded joints thereby enhancing the tensile properties.
Tensile Properties [77]
AZ61 Welding voltage: 23 V; Wire feed rate: 9 m min−1; Air flow rate: 17 L/min; Travel speed: 600 mm min−1
Effects: The stated optimal settings resulted in defect-free joints, which reduced spatter loss coefficient
Spatter loss coefficient [20]
AZ31B Welding Speed: 600−1000 mm/min; Wire feed speed: 5.0−16.0 m/min; Average current: 90−270 A; Average voltage: 21−27 V; Base current: 25−250 A; Base voltage: 18−25 V; Pulse current:150−600 A; Pulse voltage Up: 28−32  V; Pulse duration: 1.0−6.0 ms; Pulse frequency: 60−90 Hz; Gas flow rate: 13−16 L · min−1
Effects: The stated optimal settings resulted in defect-free joints, which enhanced the tensile properties of the welded joints.
Tensile properties [143]
Ultrasonic welding
AZ31 Power level, vibration frequency and welding time Tensile properties [144]
Laser-TIG hybrid welding
AZ61 Welding speed: 2000 − 6000 mm min−1. Wavelength: 1.064 mm; Focal length: 120 mm; Spot diameter: 0.4 mm; Diameter of the electrode: 3.2 mm; Angle between electrode and laser beam: 450
Effects: Welding speed increases microhardness in the weldment.
Tensile strength
Laser-GTAW hybrid welding
AZ31B Wavelength: 1.064 µm; Focal length: 120 mm; Defocusing distance: −1.0 mm; Spot diameter: 0.6 mm; Shielding gas: Argon flow at 5 L min−1 and 10 L min−1
Effects: Optimized parameters resulted in negligible defects at the weld joints enhancing the mechanical properties.
Tensile strength
GMAW-GTAW hybrid welding
AZ31B Total current: 230 A; welding voltage: 21 V; welding speed: 2.9 m/min; Bypass current:125 − 170 A
Effects: Quality weld with excellent mechanical properties at optimised process variables.
Tensile strength
Laser- TIG hybrid welding
AZ91 Electrode angle θ: 450; Electrode diameter: 3.2 mm; Laser head assembly to workpiece: 28 mm; Centre of molten pool to laser spot: 1.2 mm; Defocus distance D: 20.8 mm; TIG; Current: 105 A; Welding speed V: 1500 m min−1; Lens focal length of laser F: 120 mm Immersion test and salt spray corrosion test [148]

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