Open Access

Table 8

Solid state welding process with parameters.

Mg Alloy Parameters Mechanical properties examined References
Friction Stir Welding
AZ3 Rotation rate: 1500 rpm & 750 rpm; Travel speed: 47.5 mm/min; Cylindrical stir tool: W18Cr4V; Flat shoulder (stir tool): 14 mm; Pin:4 mm in diameter, length: 3.8 mm; The welding orientation was perpendicular to the rolling direction.
Effects: The fatigue life of the joint improved as the rotation rate was reduced from 1500 rpm to 750 rpm
Fatigue testing [154]
AZ91 Tool rotational: 800 rpm; Traverse speeds: 50 mm/min; Hexagonal pin tool; Distance between the shoulders (pin length): 0.1 mm lower than the sheet thickness; Pin length is 7.9 mm.
Effects: The stated optimal settings resulted in an enhanced quality joint, which resulted into an enhanced tensile property of about 121 MPa and 6.9 % elongation.
Tensile properties; Temperature, strain, and stress fields [183]
ZK60 Type of weld: Butt welds; Traveling speeds: from 300 to 400 mm/min; Rotational speed: 600 rpm; Taper angle: 4°
Effects: The findings showed that the plates were effectively welded at the stated processing conditions, with no welding defects occurring. Furthermore, it was observed that the UTS of the joint was 80.3-84.4% better than that of the parent metal, ZK60
Hardness tests
Tensile tests
AZ61A Welding speed: 75 mm min−1; Force (Axial): 3 kN; Tool distance:18 mm; Rotational Speed: 1000 rpm; P in distance: 6 mm; The length of the pin: 5 mm; Profile pinning: Left hand thread of 1mm pitch
Effects: It was discovered that when the pH rises, the corrosion rate actually decreases, and the mechanical properties of the joints are influenced by the reduction in corrosion rate.
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for the Salt Spray Corrosion Test and the Galvanic Corrosion Test. [49]
AZ91 Rotational speed; 710–1400 rpm, Pin diameter: 5 mm Pin height: 4.8 mm; Shoulder distance: 18 mm; Tilt orientation: 3°
Effects: As the rotation and traverse speeds rise from 710–1400 rpm and 25-100 mm min−1, the grain size increases, which is unfavourable for the properties being evaluated as they degrade.
Dislocation density; Temperature history and strain distribution [184]
AZ91−C Rotational speed: 1400 rpm; Horizontal speed; 25–100 mm min−1; Shoulder distance: 18 mm; Ultrasonic vibration amplitude :15 um; Welding Speed: 40 mm min−1
Effects: The process parameters described resulted in the production of high-quality joints that were defect-free. The microhardness increased from 79 to 87 and the tensile strength improved from 195 to 225 MPa.
Hardness tests
Tensile tests
Rotational speed: 1723 revmin−1, Travel speed: 32 to 88 m min−1, Diameter shoulder of the tool: 10 mm; Pin diameter: 4 mm; Pin length: 2.2 mm
Effects: Fast travel speeds approaching 88 m min−1 or slow rotation speeds less than 1723 revmin−1 are undesirable because the temperatures are insufficiently high when these welding parameters are utilized, decreasing the quality of welded joints.
Heat input measurements; influence of melting on heat generation [180]
AZ31 Rotational speed: 1000–2000 rpm, Plunge depth (PD): 2.25–3.00 mm; Dwell time (DT): 0–2 s; Plunging and Retracting time: 2s; Plunging and Retracting speeds of the tool: 1.12–2.5 mm/s; Transverse speed: 2 mm/min.
Effects: Optimal settings led to enhanced quality joint, improving thermal and mechanical properties of the overlap joints. In comparison to the BM, the growth correlation between the sheet length and top width increased to 13.9%.
Thermal cycle analysis
Overlap joint lap shear testing
AZ31B Tool tilt: 30; Rotation speed: 200-300 rpm; Rotation direction: CCW; Travel speed: 500 mm/min
Effects: The concave-DFSW stir zone's mean grain size increases as the bottom tool's rotation rate lowers rom 300 to 200 rpm. As a result, the joints' tensile properties improved.
Tensile tests [186]
AZ31 Pin Length: 1.65 mm; Pin diameter: 3.175 mm; Welding speed: 5−20 mms−1; Tool Rotational Rates: 1000−2000 rpm
Effects: Quality joints with yield strength of 285 Mpa in contrast to the base metal's 265 MPa were produced.
Microhardness tests
Tensile tests
AZ31-O Pin diameter: 5 mm; Tool rotation rate: 1000 rpm; Welding speed: 200 mm min−1; Shoulder distance: 10 mm−13 mm
Effects: The tensile properties of the welded samples were lower than those of the AZ31 BM
Tensile tests
Residual stress distribution
AZ61A Rotational speed: 1000rpm; Force(axial): 3 kN; Shoulder distance:18mm; Pin diameter: 6mm; Pin length: 5mm
Effects: The stated optimum process parameters resulted in an enhanced quality joint, which in turn resulted in a lower corrosion rate, affecting the joints' longevity.
Immersion Corrosion in NaCl solution [189]
Al–Zn–Mg Tool shoulder :20 mm, Cylindrical threaded pin:8mm; Tool rotational rate:800 rmin−1, Welding speed :100 to 400 m min−1.
Effects: At optimum parameters of 400 m min−1 welding speed, and a rotational rate of 800 rmin−1, Excellent joints were obtained of 91% compared to the base metal were achieved
Joint efficiency; Hardening capacity yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, ductility, net low stress [176]
AZ31 Shoulder Diameter: 12 mm; Pin diameter: 3.5 mm; Pin height: 7 mm; Pin angle: 30°; Rotational speed: 1200, 1500 and 2500 rpm; Welding speed: 30-100 mm min−1,
Effects: The vertical force value increases when the welding speed falls from 1500 to 1200 rpm and the rotating speed reduces from 100 to 60, then to 30, forces and temperatures have been linked to joint mechanical characteristics
Tensile test
Temperature test
AZ31B Rotational Speed: 1500-1800 rpm; Traverse Speed: 100-120 mm min−1; different pin profiles: Cylindrical and truncated conical
Effects: Excellent joints were achieved using the above-mentioned parameters, including a controlled welding speed of 100 mm min1 and an optimum rotational speed of 1500 rpm, which resulted in defect-free joints.
Defect formation analysis [191]
AZ31 Rotational speed: 1500-1600 rpm; Weld speed: 100 −120m min−1; Plunge Depth: 0.3-0.4 mm
Effects: Excellent joints with improved microhardness of 84 HV (16 percent enhancement) were achieved in the weld nuggets at optimal settings of 1500 rpm (rotational speed) and 100 mm min1 (welding speed).
Micro hardness [161]
AZ31 Welding traverse speed;15 mms−1
Rotation speed of 1000 rpm
Effects: Excellent joints with improved average temperature and viscosity were produced at the optimal values indicated above.
Average temperate and viscosity [192]
AZ80 Advance per Rotation: 0.107-0.425 mm
Welding speed: 88-248 m min−1
Rotational Speed: 583-820 RPM
Effects: Excellent joints evidenced with microstructural analysis clear were produced at the optimal values of increased RPM indicated above.
Microstructural analysis [193]
AZ91-D Welding speed: 90 mm/min; Tool rotation rate W: 120 RPM; Welding Pression: 1200 kN
Effects: Excellent joints were produced at the optimal values indicated above and the effects were seen in the superior tensile properties it displayed. Furthermore, Experiments indicated that raising the welding speed (V) while maintaining the tool rotation rate (W) constant caused internal holes and a deficiency of bonding process owing to insufficient material flow.
Hardness tests
Tensile tests
AZ31B Rotational speeds: 700, 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500 rpm. Travelling speed: 50 mm/min; Tool tilt: 2.5°
Effects: The average grain size rises as rotating speed increases. Furthermore, the UTS of the joints vastly improves as the rotational speed increases, with an excellent joint efficiency of 97%.
Microhardness tests; Tensile tests; Strain, Hardening; Fracture behaviour [194]
AZ31 Tool Rotational; Speed: 300-3000 rpm; Weld Pitch: 0.1000-0.6667 mm; Welding Temperature: 0.57-0.85 Tm
Effects: Excellent joints evidenced with clear microstructural analysis were produced at the optimal values indicated above.
EBSD measurements [195]
AZ31B-H24 Welding direction: perpendicular to the rolling direction of the workpiece; Welding speed:10 mm/s or 20 mm/s; The tool rotational rates: 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm Pin length: 2.75 mm
Effects: The hook length and consequent fatigue life were severely impacted by process welding conditions. Hooking flaws were removed using the best combination of 1000 rpm and 20 mm/s welding speed, which improved the welding and joint fatigue life.
Fatigue Properties
AZ31B Welding speed: 10−20 mms−1; Rotational rate: 1000-1500 rpm, Pin length: 2.75 mm
Effects: The best joints with the required mechanical characteristics were produced by combining a high welding speed of 20 mms−1 with a low tool rotating rate of 1000 rpm.
Tensile Shear Properties
Mg-5Al-3Sn Tool tilt angle: 2.5°; Rotation rate: 1000 rpm; Welding speed: 120, 150 and 180 mm min−1; Shoulder plunge depth: 0.15 mm
Effects: The increase in welding speed did not improve the tensile strength of the material.
Hardness and Tensile i tests [196]
ZE41 Shoulder diameter: 30 mm pin Diameter: 17 mm; Length: 6mm; Projection: 1-4 mm; Dwell Time: 25-60 s; Rotational speed: 600-1000 rpm
Effects: Excellent joints evidenced with reduction of defects such as interface cracking, wedge cracking and matrix cracking were produced at the optimal values of lower rotational speed (around 600-681 rpm) and higher dwelling time (around 53-60 s).
Tensile tests [181]
AZ91D Rotational speed: 1200-1600 rpm; Welding speed: 25-75 mm min−1; Force (axial): 2-6 kN.
Effects: To achieve good joints with exceptional tensile properties, the best process parameter combinations were determined to be a rotating speed of 1400 rpm, a welding speed of 50 m min1, and an axial force of 4 kN.
Tensile tests [160]
Welding speed: 1.5 mm min−1; Rotation rate: 1400 rpm, Wire feed rate: 25 mm min&#x2212 Tool Diameter: 20 mm; Shoulder Distance: 18 mm; Shoulder Length: 18 mm; Pin Profile: Threaded with the left hand, Pin Length: 3.8 mm; Pin Diameter: 6 mm; Tool tilt angle: 0°.
Effects: Excellent joints were obtained at the optimum values of 1400 rpm (rotational speed) and 25 mm min1 (welding speed), as depicted by the rise in the tensile strength (130.17 MPa) and percentage efficiency (59 percent) of the joints when compared to the base alloy (AZ91 magnesium alloy)
Tensile tests
Friction Spot Welding
AZ31 Rotation rate: 1400 rev min−1; Tool plunging rate: 20 mm min−1; Plunge depth: 0.3 mm, Dwell time: 10-25 s; Shoulder diameter: 12 mm; Pin diameter: 4 mm; Pin height: 2.8 mm
Effects: Because of the fluctuation in grain size, the microhardness and tensile shear strength rose initially and subsequently dropped as the dwell duration increased. The best dwell time is determined to be 10 to 15 s, allowing for the best mechanical characteristics of the welded joints.
Lap tensile shear tests
Vibration frequency: 19 kHz; Pin rotating rate: 1000 rpm; Plunge rate: 5 mm min−1; Shoulder plunge depth: 0.3 mm; Retracting speed: 10 m min−1 Dwell time: 5 s
Effects: Excellent joints evidenced with satisfactory tensile properties and the required microhardness were produced at the optimal values indicated above
Tensile test
ZEK100 Welding energy: 500-2500 J; Power Setting: 2 K wW, Pressure: 0.4 MPa.
Effects: For welding energy above 1500 J, the welded joints were undesirable with severe plastic deformation
Lap tensile shear tests
AZ31B Welding current: 10 kA; Electrode force: 2 kN; Welding time: 10 cycles
Effects: Microstructural analysis at the optimum values shown above indicates excellent joints.
Microstructural analysis [201]
AZ31B Welding time: 0.17 s; Welding current 2-12 kA; Welding slope time: 0.83 s; Electrode force 1-3 kN; Diameter of electrode tip: 6 mm
Effects: When welding currents were over 8000 A and electrode force was raised, defects-free junctions were obtained.
Tensile shear strength of the joint [182]
AZ31 Rotation speed: 950, 1180 rpm; Dwell time: 3-15 s; Depth of the plunge: 0.3 mm; Plunge rate: 30 mm/min
Effects: The depth of the stir zone steadily rises as the rotation speed and dwell duration increase. The process parameters are 1180 rmin−1 rotation speed and 9 s well time, which resulted in an excellent 4.22 kN maximum tensile shear strength.
Tensile shear strength

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.