Open Access

Table 6

Properties of HMMCs investigated.

Reinforcement Production approach Properties achieved References
SiC/Al2O3 Inert gas assisted electromagnetic
stir casting process
The pulse on time in EDM was the most significant parameter that contributed maximum of 46.04% to the
MRR followed by pulse current of 34.72%, pulse off time of 10.23% and interaction, pulse on time 3 pulse
off time of 5.46%.
The wire drum speed had insignificant effect on the material removal rate
Al2O3, h-BN particles Ultrasonic assisted cavitation and molten salt processing
Deep cycle cryogenic treatment (DCT) T6 treatment is observed to elevate mechanical properties to a greater extent.
Under T6 condition, the VHN is improved to the maximum of 44.1% in unreinforced aluminium alloy and 39.6% in case of the hybrid nanocomposite, while the corresponding improvement of 5.1% and 4.5% is observed under DCT
TiB2/Gr In-situ liquid metallurgy route By investigation it is found that TiB2 particles were pinned the matrix grain growth while casting itself which acted as the grain refiner.
ANOVA results were showed that the sliding distance was had more influence on the wear rate followed by the load
B4C and MoS2 Stir casting Wear loss of AA7075 + 12% B4C +3% MoS2 is found to be 0.0387 g at 30 N load, tensile strength 298.52 N/mm2, yield strength 172.6 N/mm2 and elongation 3.7%, hardness 94.32 VHN [25]
B4C/Fly ash Stir casting The composite with 2 wt.% fly ash and 8 wt.% B4C had 123.29 HV, which is 37.2% higher than base matrix alloy [26]
Fly ash + Al2O3 Stir casting Presence of fly ash had no significant effect on the tensile strength and hardness, the better results are
obtained when both Al2O3 and fly ash are mixed with Al 7075 matrix.
Improved wear resistance is obtained for composite with 10% Al2O3 + 10% fly ash
Al2O3/Mg Stir casting By increasing the wt.% of nano-reinforcement the
density decreased when compared to base alloy.
Tensile strength, hardness, and toughness gradually improved by increasing wt.% of Al2O3
Al2O3/SiC/Mg Stir casting The compressive strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness values increase by increasing the weight percentage of nano-Al2O3 and n-SiC reinforcement.
HMMCs exhibited a significant decrease in friction coefficient and wear rates with an increase in the wt.% of reinforcement particles
TaC/Si3N4/Ti Stir casting Combined TaC/Si3N4/Ti reinforcements with in AA7075 elevated the mechanical properties. Theoretical and experimental densities were noted to be 3.11 g/cc and 3.09 g/cc as compared to the density of base alloy. However, the highest compression strength was 634 MPa at 1 wt.% of TaC and 8 wt.% of Si3N4 and 2 wt.% of Ti in hybrid composite [35]
Al2O3/SiC FSP Addition of 3.7 wt.% Al2O3+3.0 wt.% SiC in AA7075 enhanced the micro hardness about 33.96% which is higher than base matrix.
Specimen with 3.7% Al2O3 + 3.0 % SiC has better lubrication and load-bearing capacity that exhibited superior tribological characteristics at 40 and 60 N
B4C and BN Stir casting Dispersion of B4C and BN to alloy has raised the strength by 22%.
The corrosion rate decreased by 18.5% between 3% and 6% B4C addition whereas it decreased by22.4% between 6% and 9% B4C addition
B4C and Rice husk ash (RHA) Stir casting The hardness for AA 7075-5%B4C-5%RHA is 121 HV, tensile strength is 260 MPa at 5 wt.% of B4C. The compression strength is 563 MPa at 5 wt.% of B4C and 5 wt.% of RHA in hybrid composite [46]
and Al2O3
Stir casting By raising the sliding speeds, there is a reduction in the wear rate and it decreases with increase in the sliding distance. With increasing weight fraction, there is decrement in the rate of wear of composites. [68]
SiCp, Ti Squeeze-casting Tensile properties:
7 vol% SiC/Al composite (unreacted interface)- σy ⁓97 MPa, σmax ⁓113MPa, elongation ⁓16%.
7 vol% SiC/Al composite (reacted interface)- σy ⁓103 MPa, σmax ⁓139 MPa, elongation ⁓14%.
As cast with Ti particle (diffusion layer)- σy ⁓523 MPa, σmax ⁓622 MPa, elongation ⁓1.2%.
As cast with Ti particle (diffusion & reaction layer)- σy ⁓539 MPa, σmax ⁓673 MPa, elongation ⁓1.6%.
Fly ash/SiC Stir casting 10% fly ash/SiC-142 VHN, UTS>210 MPa, YS>150 MPa.
5% fly ash/SiC-120 VHN, UTS ⁓200 MPa, YS⁓150 MPa
Alloy-102 VHN, UTS ⁓180 MPa, YS⁓140 MPa
SiC/TiB2 Stir casting UTS and micro hardness of Al composite is 182 MPa and 81 HV respectively [74]
h-BN, B4C and amorphous B Vacuum impregnation technology, explosive
pressing, and mechanical alloying with subsequent hot extrusion
AA7075-HRB<5, density 2.85 g/cc, wear 55.3 microns.
AA7075/B-amorphous-HRB⁓86, density 2.39 g/cc, wear 7.2 microns.
AA7075/h-BN-HRB⁓85, density 2.30 g/cc, wear 3.3 microns.
AA7075/B4C+W-HRB⁓75, density 2.87 g/cc, wear 6.4 microns
Al2O3/graphite Stir casting Hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength of the hybrid composites increased with increasing Al2O3 particulates.
Graphite decrease the hardness, tensile strength, compression strength and flexural strength and it
was overcome by the addition of Al2O3 particulates in the hybrid composites.
The presence of graphite in the hybrid composite as also been able to decrease the wear and coefficient of friction of the composite
B4C-Coconut shell
fly ash(CSFA)
Stir casting Hardness of the composites increased 33% by reinforcements of 12wt.% B4C and 3wt.% CSFA in
aluminium 7075 alloy. The tensile strength of the composites increased 66% by the addition of 9wt.% B4C and 3wt.% CSFA in aluminium 7075 alloy.
The impact energy of the composites increased up to 2.3 J with 9 wt.% B4C and 3wt.% CSFA addition in aluminium alloy
B4C/fly ash Stir casting Mechanical and tribological properties are improved for Al 7075 wt.% 90, B4C wt.% 3, and fly ash wt.% 7 as 111 BHN, UTS is 290 MPa, % elongation 0.75 mm, impact strength 0.76 J, and wear rate 1.4 mm3/min [88]
B4C/BN Casting
Density of the prepared composites was notably increased with the addition of B4C and BN particles. For MMC UTS, yield strength and hardness, were 57, 44 and 72% higher than alloy matrix [89]
TiC ceramic and MoS2 Stir casting The measured Rockwell Hardness (HRB) values are 52.5 ± 1.5 (AA7075), 67.2 ± 2.2 (Al + TiC (2%)), 75.4 ± 4.3 (Al + TiC (4%)), 54.1 ± 2.4 (Al + TiC (2%) + MoS2(2%)), and 61.9 ± 6.6 (Al + TiC (4%) + MoS2(2%)).
The surface roughness increased from 0.15 ∼ 0.35 microns for AA7075; 0.38 ∼ 0.46 microns for AA7075 + TiC (2%) + MoS2 (2%); and 0.54 ∼ 0.62 AA7075 + TiC (4%) + MoS2 (2%)
TiB2, Al2O3, Mg, and Zn FSP The results indicate that poor bonding between the reinforcement-matrix significantly reduces strength and wear behaviors.
The effective dispersion of reinforcement results in net enhancement in strength and wear performance both when the processing done within a specific range of processing time-temperature

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