Summary of literature review of hybrid nanofluid MQL and optimization.
|Reference Paper||Nanofluid||Nanoparticle size||Process type||Material used||Findings|
|Zhang et al. ||MoS2-CNTs (concentration: 2, 4, 6,8,10, and 12 wt.%)||MoS2:30 nm. CNT: 10–30 nm long and 30 nm diameter.||Surface grinding||Ni-based alloy||The lowest value of coefficient of friction (0.274) and surface roughness (0.328 μm) obtained by hybrid nanofluids using 8 wt.% concentrations.|
|Zhang et al. ||Al2O3-SiC (Mixed in synthetic lipids. Mass fraction of 6% and mixing ratio of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1)||50 nm||Grinding||Ni based alloy||Lowest values of tangential force (20.03 N), grinding force ratio (0.28), specific grinding energy (60.68 J/mm3), and surface roughness (0.323 μm) obtained using hybrid nanofluids, mixing proportion of 2:1.|
|Singh et al. ||Mixing alumina nanofluid with graphene nanoplatelets in water (volumetric ratio: 90:10 and concentrations: 0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 vol.%)||Al2O3:45 nm Graphene: Average thickness (11–15 nm) and particle size (5 µm).||Turning||AISI 304 steel||Hybrid nanofluid with MQL significantly reduces the surface roughness by 20.28%, cutting forces by 9.94%, thrust force by 17.38% and feed force by 7.25% compared to Al2O3 nanofluid.|
|Anil Kumar et al. ||MoS2-WS2,WS2-hBN, MoS2-hBN (Mixing ratio: 1:1 and concentration: 0.5 wt.%)||MoS2:90 nm, h-BN: 70 nm||Diamond grinding||Silicon nitride (Si3N4)||Reduction of normal grinding force and specific grinding energy by 27% and 39% respectively whereas surface roughness and chipping layer depth of silicon nitride workpiece reduces by 41% and 86% using MoS2-WS2 hybrid nanofluids compared to water based fluid.|
|Jamil et al. ||Al2O3-CNT (Mixed in vegetable oil ratio of 90:10)||Al2O3: 30 nm, CNT (length of 10-30 nm and diameter of 30 nm)||Turning||Ti-6Al-4V||Hybrid nanofluids reduces the surface roughness, and cutting force by 8.72% and 11.8% respectively whereas the tool life increases by 23% compared to cryogenic cooling.|
|Sai Geetha et al. ||Graphene–copper (Mixing proportion: 1:1 in water soluble oil||Cu: average size 30-50 nm and Graphene: diameter: 2 μm)||Turning||AISI 4340 steel||Least flank wear, and decrease in temperature is obtained using hybrid nanofluids, mixing proportion of 1:1 compared to other machining conditions.|
|Gugulothu et al. ||CNT/MoS2 (Mixing ratio: 1:2 and concentration: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 wt.%)||CNT: 30 nm MoS2: 30 nm||Turning||AISI 1040 steel||CNT/MoS2 (2 wt.%) reduces coefficient of friction (0.038), cutting forces (162.7 N), temperature (140 °C), surface roughness (2 μm) and tool flank wear (0.05).|
|Haghnazari et al. ||Al2O3-CuO mixed in water (Concentration: 1, 0.75, 0.50, and 0.25 wt.%).||CuO:40 nm Al2O3: 20 nm||Turning||Alloy steel AISI4340 steel||Mixing proportion of CuO (0.75%) and Al2O3 (0.25%) gives the lowest value of resultant forces (364 N), and surface roughness (0.335 μm).|
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