Open Access

Table 3

Summary of literature review of hybrid nanofluid MQL and optimization.

Reference Paper Nanofluid Nanoparticle size Process type Material used Findings
Zhang et al. [73] MoS2-CNTs (concentration: 2, 4, 6,8,10, and 12 wt.%) MoS2:30 nm. CNT: 10–30 nm long and 30 nm diameter. Surface grinding Ni-based alloy The lowest value of coefficient of friction (0.274) and surface roughness (0.328 μm) obtained by hybrid nanofluids using 8 wt.% concentrations.
Zhang et al. [75] Al2O3-SiC (Mixed in synthetic lipids. Mass fraction of 6% and mixing ratio of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1) 50 nm Grinding Ni based alloy Lowest values of tangential force (20.03 N), grinding force ratio (0.28), specific grinding energy (60.68 J/mm3), and surface roughness (0.323 μm) obtained using hybrid nanofluids, mixing proportion of 2:1.
Singh et al. [82] Mixing alumina nanofluid with graphene nanoplatelets in water (volumetric ratio: 90:10 and concentrations: 0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 vol.%) Al2O3:45 nm Graphene: Average thickness (11–15 nm) and particle size (5 µm). Turning AISI 304 steel Hybrid nanofluid with MQL significantly reduces the surface roughness by 20.28%, cutting forces by 9.94%, thrust force by 17.38% and feed force by 7.25% compared to Al2O3 nanofluid.
Anil Kumar et al. [76] MoS2-WS2,WS2-hBN, MoS2-hBN (Mixing ratio: 1:1 and concentration: 0.5 wt.%) MoS2:90 nm, h-BN: 70 nm Diamond grinding Silicon nitride (Si3N4) Reduction of normal grinding force and specific grinding energy by 27% and 39% respectively whereas surface roughness and chipping layer depth of silicon nitride workpiece reduces by 41% and 86% using MoS2-WS2 hybrid nanofluids compared to water based fluid.
Jamil et al. [77] Al2O3-CNT (Mixed in vegetable oil ratio of 90:10) Al2O3: 30 nm, CNT (length of 10-30 nm and diameter of 30 nm) Turning Ti-6Al-4V Hybrid nanofluids reduces the surface roughness, and cutting force by 8.72% and 11.8% respectively whereas the tool life increases by 23% compared to cryogenic cooling.
Sai Geetha et al. [80] Graphene–copper (Mixing proportion: 1:1 in water soluble oil Cu: average size 30-50 nm and Graphene: diameter: 2 μm) Turning AISI 4340 steel Least flank wear, and decrease in temperature is obtained using hybrid nanofluids, mixing proportion of 1:1 compared to other machining conditions.
Gugulothu et al. [78] CNT/MoS2 (Mixing ratio: 1:2 and concentration: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 wt.%) CNT: 30 nm MoS2: 30 nm Turning AISI 1040 steel CNT/MoS2 (2 wt.%) reduces coefficient of friction (0.038), cutting forces (162.7 N), temperature (140 °C), surface roughness (2 μm) and tool flank wear (0.05).
Haghnazari et al. [79] Al2O3-CuO mixed in water (Concentration: 1, 0.75, 0.50, and 0.25 wt.%). CuO:40 nm Al2O3: 20 nm Turning Alloy steel AISI4340 steel Mixing proportion of CuO (0.75%) and Al2O3 (0.25%) gives the lowest value of resultant forces (364 N), and surface roughness (0.335 μm).

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