|Nickel (Ni)||Formation of γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) phase, stabilization of face-centered cube (FCC) matrix, hinders the formation of deleterious phases|
|Cobalt (Co)||Increases the solvus temperature of γ′ and reduces the stacking fault energy|
|Chromium (Cr)||Solid solution strengthening, sulphidation and oxidation resistance, formation of grain boundary carbide|
|Iron (Fe)||Solid solution strengthening|
|Titanium (Ti)||Forms γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) and carbides (MC type) (where M= denotes a metal, M = Cr, Fe, W, Mo)|
|Aluminum (Al)||Forms γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) and enhances oxidation resistance|
|Carbon (C)||Carbide formation (Viz., MC, M23C6)|
|Boron (B), Zirconium (Zr)||Stress rupture property improvement imparts strength to grain boundaries.|
|Molybdenum (Mo), Tantalum (Ta), and Tungsten (W)||Strengthening of solid solution and carbide formation (MC type)|
|Lanthanum (La) and Yttrium (Y)||Improvement in oxidation resistance|
|Niobium (Nb)||Forms γ′′ (Ni3Nb) and carbide formation (MC type)|
|Vanadium (V)||Forms γ′′|
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