Open Access

Table 1

Role of alloying elements in Ni-based superalloy [11,12].

Element Effects
Nickel (Ni) Formation of γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) phase, stabilization of face-centered cube (FCC) matrix, hinders the formation of deleterious phases
Cobalt (Co) Increases the solvus temperature of γ′ and reduces the stacking fault energy
Chromium (Cr) Solid solution strengthening, sulphidation and oxidation resistance, formation of grain boundary carbide
Iron (Fe) Solid solution strengthening
Titanium (Ti) Forms γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) and carbides (MC type) (where M= denotes a metal, M = Cr, Fe, W, Mo)
Aluminum (Al) Forms γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) and enhances oxidation resistance
Carbon (C) Carbide formation (Viz., MC, M23C6)
Boron (B), Zirconium (Zr) Stress rupture property improvement imparts strength to grain boundaries.
Molybdenum (Mo), Tantalum (Ta), and Tungsten (W) Strengthening of solid solution and carbide formation (MC type)
Lanthanum (La) and Yttrium (Y) Improvement in oxidation resistance
Niobium (Nb) Forms γ′′ (Ni3Nb) and carbide formation (MC type)
Vanadium (V) Forms γ′′

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