Open Access

Table 1.

Previous research on white layer formation in machining.

Material Process References Comments
EN8 steel Drilling Griffiths [64] Catastrophic wear and rubbing induce white layer formation.
AISI 1045 steel Turning Han et al. [22] Plastic deformation promotes phase transformation at lower temperature.
AISI 52100 steel Turning Barbacki and Kawalec [65]
Ramesh and Melkote [21] Prediction model for plasticity induced martensitic phase transformation.
Umbrello and Filice [66] The white layer thickness increases with increasing feed rate.
Poulachon et al. [67] The white layer thickness increases with the tool flank wear.
Duan et al. [20] Temperature based FEA model for white layer thickness prediction.
BS 817M40 steel Turning Barry and Byrne [68] Refined grain size from the material recrystallization.
H13 steel Turning Bosheh and Mativenga [69] The martensitic phase transformation is correlated with tool wear.
Ti-6Al-4V Turning Che-Haron and Jawaid [58] Working hardening is observed on the white layer.
Velásquez et al. [70] Plastically affected zone observed, but no phase transformation.
End milling Daymi et al. [63] Thin plastically deformed layer.
IN 100 Turning Ranganath et al. [19] FEA prediction model for the white layer and bent grains.

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