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Table 2.

Yada model for different microscopic phenomena in hot working of C-Mn steel.

Microscopic phenomenon Phenomenological model Notation used
Dynamic recrystallization

Xdyn is the dynamic recrystallized volume fraction, ε strain, εc the critical strain for DRX, ε0.5 the strain for 50% DRX, d0 initial grain size, strain rate, T the absolute temperature, ddyn the grain size produced by DRX, Z the temperature-compensated strain rate, i.e. the Zener-Hollomon parameter, R universal gas constant, Xsrx the static recrystallized volume fraction, t the time for SRX to occur, t0.5 the time for 50% SRX, SV the grain boundary area per unit volume, dsrx the grain size produced by SRX, and dg the grain size after grain growth.
Static recrystallization

Grain growth

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